Coordinates: 19 ° 0100 'S. w. 30 ° 0100 "in. d. / 19.016667 ° S. w. 30.016667 ° c. . D (G) (O) (I) -19.016667, 30.016667
motto: «Unity, Freedom, Work»
«unity, freedom, labor»
Hymn: «Kalibusiswe Ilizwe le Zimbabwe»
Established October 1, 1923 (as Southern Rhodesia)
Date 18 April 1980 (from the UK)
Nyanzha, chybarve, English, Kallang, kaysanskaya, nambya, N'Daw, ndebele, Shangani, Shona, sign language, Sesotho, Tonga, Tswana, Venda, Xhosa
Form of Government Presidential Republic
first Vice President
second Vice President Robert Mugabe
60th in the world
390 757 km² Population
• Evaluation (2012)
• Census (2012)
12973808 people. (73rd)
26 people. / Km² (170th)
• Together (2014)
• Per capita
$ 27.134 billion
$ 2046 GDP (nominal)
• Together (2014)
• per capita
$ 13.672 billion
0.492 ( low) (156th)
Currency US Dollar ($, USD)
All times are
Zimbabwe (English: Zimbabwe, nyanzha: Zimbabwe, Shona: Zimbabwe, Sesotho: Zimbabwe, Tswana: Zimbabwe, Venda: Zimbagwe.) - country in South Africa. It shares borders with South Africa in the south, Botswana and Namibia to the west, Zambia to the north and Mozambique to the east. Direct access to the ocean has.
In the past, the British colony of Southern Rhodesia, de facto independence in 1965-79 under the name of Rhodesia and Zimbabwe Rhodesia. Capital - Harare (formerly Salisbury.). Country name indicates its continuity with respect to the first state in the area - Manamatapa Empire, which was the capital of Great Zimbabwe, and the general population -. Gakamere people, the ancestors of today prevailing Shona
Contents 1 Nature
2 State system and policy
3 Foreign policy Economy
4 of 5 cm.
also 6 References 7 Links
Most of Zimbabwe is located at an altitude of 1,000-1,500 m in the Precambrian basement within the broad plateau Mashona and Matabele, who stepped fall to the high reservoir sand plains middle reaches of the river Zambezi (north) and the area between the Limpopo and Sabila (in the south). The highest point of the country -. Mount Nyangani mountain (2592 m) in the mountains of eastern Zimbabwe Inbyanga
According platsinoidav deposits of chromite and Zimbabwe III takes place in the world. Also a lot of deposits of iron ore, gold, rare metals, copper, nickel, cobalt, bauxite, coal, and precious stones (diamonds, rubies, emeralds).
dense river network belongs to the Indian Ocean, with the exception of a small area of internal runoff west. The Zambezi River, which flows through the northwestern border of the country, collects tributaries from the half of the territory of Zimbabwe (Gwaii SENGWE, Sanyatsi). In Limpopo, which flows along the southern border, fall Shashe River Umzingvani, Bube, Mvenezi. In the south-east of the river receives inflows of Sheba, and Runda Sabila. In the west of the river and its tributaries Nat dries on the way to the Kalahari. Zimbabwe neshmatvodnyya river, dry in the dry season, with numerous rapids and waterfalls, the most famous of which is Victoria on the Zambezi River. Many rivers built reservoir, the largest of which Kariba. Shipping only some parts of the Zambezi and Limpopo.
Due to the catastrophic rate of deforestation, woody vegetation now occupies less than half of the country. Relic moist evergreen forests are preserved only on the slopes of the mountains in the east Inyanga. To the west rise the dry deciduous forests of interest. On the plateau Mashona -. Dry and sparse forests miomba mapane
Large animals in Zimbabwe still zahavalaisya elephants, antelopes, zebras, giraffes, lions, crocodiles. Few rhinoceroses, cheetahs, giraffes, pythons. 10% of the territory occupied by reserves and national parks
State structure and politics
Republic of Zimbabwe -. A presidential republic. Adopted April 18, 1980 The Constitution of 1987, as amended in 1989, is assigned to the head of state - the president unlimited power. President heads the government and is the commander of the armed forces of a State. The President is elected by direct universal suffrage for 6-year terms, but could be elected to this post an unlimited number of times. Legislative power is exercised by the National Assembly, consisting of 150 members (120 of which are elected by direct popular vote, 12 - appointed by the president, 10 seats occupied by traditional chiefs and 8 occupy positions 8 provincial governors). The term of office of the National Assembly -. 5 years
In 2013 the Constitution was amended as a result of which limit presidential power and expanded the powers of parliament. However, President Mugabe would be re-elected twice.
Foreign Policy Since independence, a key priority in foreign policy is Zimbabwe Africa. Zimbabwe played an active role in the Non-Aligned Movement, the Commonwealth, in the struggle against apartheid, as a member of the "frontline states". Zimbabwe's leadership supported the Government of Mozambique in its struggle against RENAMO; From 1992 to 1995, Zimbabwe participated in the UN peacekeeping missions in Mozambique, Rwanda, Angola, Somalia.
Relationship Mugabe government with the West deteriorated after the start of the country's land requisition white farmers, as well as after the observers from Western countries recognized election in 2000 fair. The IMF and the World Bank stopped issuing loans to Zimbabwe, citing abuse of officials of the consideration received, as well as the cessation of debt payments. Another reason was the adoption of the US law on "Democracy and the Restoration of Zimbabwe's economy" (December 2001), in which Mugabe could normalize relations with international financial institutions only in the case of withdrawal of troops from the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and to provide for transparent and fair elections. The actions of the Zimbabwean authorities against the opposition before the presidential elections in 2002 were regarded by the EU as a threat to democracy, which has led to the introduction of sanctions against Zimbabwe limited. The Commonwealth has suspended Zimbabwe's membership in the organization, after which the country has emerged from her
Government R.Mugabe enjoyed fairly stable support for a regional leader -. South Africa, although the situation has temporarily deteriorated after entering Zimbabwe troops in the DRC. South Africa voted for the exclusion of Zimbabwe from the Commonwealth for one year, but has opposed international sanctions. South Africa's management takes an active part in resolving the political crisis in Zimbabwe.
In 2006 the Zimbabwean government officially announced the program "Look East" ( "Look East»), which became part of the state policy reorientation to Western markets on the markets of China, India, Iran , Indonesia, Malaysia, North Korea, Zimbabwe
-. UN member (25 August 1980), is a member of the African Union, the South African development community, the Economic community of Eastern countries and South Africa, etc. After
. gaining independence in 1980, Zimbabwe belonged to the number on the ybolsh economically developed countries on the African continent. Currently, Zimbabwe is one of the poorest countries in the world.
10% of the working population is employed in industry, it provides 21.6% of GDP. Work textile and tobacco industry, for the production of car batteries and processing of agricultural commodities. underway commercial production of iron, gold, asbestos, coal, silver, nickel, platinum, the most important role is played by extraction of gold. In 1996, diamond production began.
Agriculture employs 66% of the working population, it makes 16.7% of GDP. Processed 8.3% of the land is irrigated by 174 thousand. Hectares of land. The main export crops is tobacco (3 in the world), cotton, tea (22 thousand. T) and sugar cane (3.3 million tons). For domestic consumption are grown wheat (140 thousand. T), corn (900 thousand. T), vegetables (135 thousand. T). Frequent droughts cause great damage to agriculture.
state revenues. budget in 2008 amounted to - $ 0.1537 million State Spending.. Budget - $ 0.1793 million
See.. Zimbabwe also
Belarusian Encyclopedia: 18 tons T.7: Screensaver - Cantata / the Editorial Board:. GP Pashkov, etc... - M: BelEn, 1999. - 608:. Yl.. ISBN 985-11-0279-2
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