Genoese colony in the Northern Black Sea

Genoese colony in the northern Black Sea coast -. Fortified malls Genoese merchants in the XIII-XV centuries history
Expanding the scope of trading after the Crusades and fought against Venice, which competed with them, the Genoese, sought the support of Byzantium (Nimfeyski contract in 1261) monopolize trade in the Black sea in 1266 made by the protege of the Golden horde in the Crimea Mangu Khan transfer of possession of Kaffa (modern Feodosiya), who later became the center of their colonies. In one thousand three hundred fifty-seven Genoese acquired Chembala (now Balaklava), in 1365 - Verkhnyaya Salda (modern Sudak), displacing the Venetians. Any new colonies of the Genoese: Vaspora (in present-day Kerch), Tana (at the mouth of the Don), Zhynestra (on the territory of modern Odessa). Their agencies were in the cities Matrega (now Taman), Copa (now Slavyansk-na-Kubani), etc.
Italian colony in the Northern Black Sea about 1390
The colonies lived Greeks, Armenians, Italians , Jews, Tatars, Circassians and other peoples. By the end of the XIV century they seized the Black Sea trade. Through its strong points in the Black Sea Genoese merchants carried on a trade intermediary. They sold the grain, salt, leather, furs, wax, honey, timber, fish, caviar from the Black Sea area, cloth - from Italy and Germany, oil and wine - from Greece, spices, precious stones, musk - from Asia, ivory -. of Africa and many other products
large place occupied by trade prisoners (Russian, Circassians, Alans), acquired in the Tatar khans and Turkish sultans. The slaves of Slavic origin are found in the XIV century in the notarial acts of some Italian cities and pavdnovafrantsuzskih (Roussillon). About Slave-Scythians mentioned famous poet Petrarch, in his letter to the Archbishop of Genoa, Guido Sete.
Genoese trade with Circassia was a significant development. Imported Genoese Northwest on Caucasus paper and silk fabric, cloth and Italian bakasiny, copper and iron products, luxury goods, gold, silver and precious stones, salt and etc. Italian trade with the mountaineers wore for Adygs unequal nature. Italians strictly regulate the price of salt, in which the local population is in great need. In turn, for the Genoese merchants importance was the export of grain. Circassian bread to Western Europe, the Byzantine Empire and the Empire of Trebizond. The import of grain from the Crimea and Circassians had to Byzantium so important that its termination in 1343 has caused the threat of hunger in this country.
Traded Genoese merchants also in the Russian lands. Natives of Genoa colonies (Russian name - frags) - lived in Moscow, where in the XIV-XV centuries. existed merchants Corporation - surazhan who specialized in trade with the Genoese colony. Genoese colony was well fortified, had garrisons in fortresses (the remains of the fortifications preserved in Balaklava, Sudak, Feodosia). Genoese maintained an alliance with the Golden Horde khans, which formally is the supreme rulers of the colony, but gave them full self-government, to retain power only over his subjects khans. In 1380 Genoese infantry participated on the side of Mamaia in the Battle of Kulikov. However, the colony was repeatedly attacked and devastated by the Khans (one thousand two hundred ninety-nine, 1308, 1344-1347, 1396-1397).
The largest colony was Kaffa, it is the development of crafts center. After falling in 1453 Byzantine Genoa Black Sea colonies yielded his bank San Giorgio (Bank St. George). The international situation has deteriorated colonies: increased military and political pressure of the Crimean Khanate, strained relations with the Principality of Theodoro Crimea. In 1475 the Genoese colony was conquered by Ottoman troops under the command of Ahmed Gedyka pastures and incorporated into the Ottoman state. Longest (up to 1482) on the Taman peninsula lasted representatives of the Genoese aristocratic family Gizol'fi.
from Genoese period in the Crimea remains of fortifications, towers and palaces in the Cafe and Chembala built under the supervision of Italian architects fortress and consular castle in Soldano. In 1951, in Feodosia in the territory of the Genoese fortress were carried out archaeological excavations have given valuable material for studying the history of the city, its crafts and trade
List Genoese colony in the Northern Black Sea
now Ukraine:.
highlighted in red Genoese possessions in the Crimea
in Crimea - Gazera:
Kafa - Caffa (Theodosia)
Chembala - Cembalo (Balaklava)
Soldi - Soldaia (Sudak)
Vaspora - Vosporo (Kerch)
captaincy Goths (Capitanatu Gottie) [1]
Consulatus Gorzoni (Gruzui [2]) (Gurzuf)
Consulatus Pertinice (Partenit)
Consulatus Jalite (Yalta)
Consulatus Lusce (Alushta)
From rsona (Chersonese) [2]
Aperture Dniester
Samastra (Mankastra) - Samastro (Moncastro; Bilgorod-Dnistrovsky) Odessa Gulf Coast

Zhynestra - Ginestra (Odessa-Luzanavka)
Aperture Danube
Likastoma - Licostomo (Kealia) [3]
territory of present-day Russia: The mouth of the Don

Tana - Tana (Azov)
current territory of Krasnodar region
Matrega - Matrega (Tmutarakan) (now Taman)
Copa - Copa (Kopylov now Slavyansk-na-Kubani)
Map - Mapa (Anapa)
Bata - Bata (Novorossiysk)
Casta - Casto (host)
Liyash - Layso (Adler)
Mavralaka - Mavrolaco (Gelendzhik)
Teryt oryya present Abkhazia: Abkhazia
- Abcasia (Gantiadi)
Kakar - Chacari (Gagra)
Santa Sofia - Santa Sophia (Alahady)
Pesonka - Pesonqa (Pitsunda)
Coffee di- bush - Cavo di Buxo (Gudauta)
Nikapsiya - Niocoxia (New Athos)
Sebastapolis (Sukhumi)
territory of present-day Georgia:
Lo Vaci (Batumi)
O. Gavrilenko A. Judicial system Krymska Genu¿ colonies (the other half of the XIII -. the middle of the XV century) // Visnik Khar'kivs'ka national University. VN Karazin. - ¹ 945. - Series "right." - 2011. - pp. 49-53
Gavrilenko OA basic RISS civilized protsese in pivnichnoprichornomorskih Genu¿ colonies (the other half of the XIII -. Chvert third of the fifteenth century) // Scientific notes of Taurida National University. VI Vernadsky. Ser. "Jurisprudence". - T. 24 (63). - 2011. - number 2 .. - S. 17-22
Zevakin ES, Penchko NA Essays on the history of the Genoese colony in the Western Caucasus in the XI and XV centuries // FROM.. - T. 3. - M., 1938.
Sekirinski C. Studies in the History Surozh IX-XV centuries. - Simferopol, 1955.
Solomin AV Christian antiquity Minor Abkhazia. - M., 2006.
Syroechkovsky VE-surozhane guests. -. M-L 1935
↑ Tipakov VA Commons Gothia Gothia Captaincy and get up in the Kaffa 1449 g .// Culture of the Black Sea, in 1999, the N6, pp 218-224 ↑
. 2.0 2.1 Barbaro. Travel to Tan. Paragraph 46
↑ Historical Geography of the Golden Horde in XIII-XIV centuries.
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