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Pottery in ancient Greece

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5 References
7th and 6th Centuries BC It can be considered as creative periods in the history of Greek civilization. The progress seen in social, political and economic life in these two centuries shows itself in various fields of cultural life, ideas, literature and art. This period of culture goes beyond the narrow framework of the Greek middle age culture, is constantly evolving by relying on the foundations laid down by the Homer world. are important documents for painting and embroidery art. [1]
BC. Black figure technique was used in the late 7th and 6th centuries and red figure technique was used in the following periods. They are important documents for the art of painting and embroidery in the vases they made for the daily needs of the Greeks. In addition to the more developed and tabulated geometric or figurative motifs, human paintings have an important place, and painters know not only the single human figure, but also the creation of very large compositions and even related compositions in various friezes, and mostly apply to mythological subjects. Among them are important in eastern Greece and Corinth. The East Greek school stands out with the clarity, variety and vividness of the colors, and the painters want to explain as much as possible in the animal friezes that they know how to arrange them in a harmonious speed. The vases, which date back to the 9th century and are mainly from the 7th century, are shown as' protocolorinthvases Kor to distinguish them from the later works in Corinth. These vases, which have been carefully made with the name, show some geometric decorations or mythological scenes, each claiming to be a work of art in itself, are in great demand in the Mediterranean market. (picture 1) [2]
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In this way, we see that the 7th and 6th centuries created a high civilization by making use of the eastern civilizations of the Greeks, but by changing and developing the elements from which they were acquired, thus laying the foundations of the 5th century civilization. But the archaic culture has become the basis not only of classical culture, but also of the European culture that we have adopted today. These vases are divided into 3 groups:
Greeks who have achieved great success in architecture and sculpture; jewelery, pottery, coins of all kinds of metal goods and armor in the construction of the extremely interesting work they have done. agreed. It is not easy to date them, especially since most of the items made of precious materials have disappeared. There is almost nothing left. A critic describes this situation as the most painful loss for any era or country's art history. Those who study the ancient era are equal to the success of Greek painting, even if it does not leave behind the achievements in architecture and sculpture. they merge. One of the first types of pottery that the Greeks began to make in a standard manner in both decoration and form was the amphorist. The example depicts the main goddess dated to the 7th century BC. The goddess of Olympos was later replaced by the gods of Olympos. literally, the beginning of the geometric style can be determined in three stages: Lower geometric (900-850), Mature or Medium geometric (850-750), and Upper Geometric (750-700). During these two centuries, the production of painted ceramics shows a significant breakthrough in both quality and quantity. The decor sometimes remains essentially geometric; The name given to the art of the period comes from here. In addition to the breakthrough of ceramics, the re-emergence of various other forms of art will generally take place gradually, with the Renaissance in common features. In the first half of the nineteenth century, the decorators of the vases continue to make play pins in a geometric style. Its non-ornamental elegance is usually due to an ornament limited to the neck and the central part of the vase, a very pure fine clay is applied to the main part of the wall, which is darkened by the action of carbon oxide; if the furnace is strong, the orange color of natural clay remains in perfect blackness thanks to the red iron oxide being converted to ferrous oxide or black and permanent magnetic iron oxide. This is the secret of what is wrongly called but easy to use as the black varnish of Greek ceramic. Elegant forms emerge. (image 2 and 3) [3]
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The mouth of the example The three-slice oinokhoe (wine jug) (picture 4) will show great success over the centuries.85 Attic geometric pottery has taken a new step: this is the beginning of mature or medium geometry. Henceforth, the tendency is to replicate these stripes and to diversify the motifs, while maintaining the contrast between the black and ornamented horizontal stripes that emphasize the structure of the vase. Most of the decorative elements remain linear and form increasingly complex geometric figures. (horizontal and vertical ornaments, rhombuses, checkered ornaments, pinwheels, wolf teeth, swastas or swastika). These figures are either as long as the length surrounding the vase or as individual panels. The most striking innovation is the emergence of animal figures (waterfowl and quadrupeds: horses, deer, roe deer, goats, mountain goats). From the eighth century onwards, these individual figures first multiplied rapidly to 770-750 on the large vases of the middle geometric end, especially those which could exceed 1.5 m in height (where the vases were located) - Greek Dipylon - north The main decor of Dipylon's large vases has a simple and clear meaning. prothesis (exposition of the dead), ekphora (funeral procession) and the accompanying cortege of ritual cremators. These important moments were thus continued with the appearance that the ceremony took place according to the rules of the ceremony. A second stage is often added to the funeral scene: this is the gateway of chariots to remind the deceased's wealth or to remind the funeral games held in his memory; sometimes a battle scene is also seen. However, the style of depicting people remains schematic. The bodies are shown as a series of partially articulated geometric figures: the arms and the elbows are reduced to two small angles, the body is a triangle, the head mill, the legs are like garbage, the knees are slightly visible, the neck and waist are reduced to a connecting handle. The last phase of the geometric style also shows its richest development in Athens. This Dipylon vase is a large ceramic pot. It is used as a tombstone in an ancient period. There are women mourning on both sides of the body of a dead woman at the junction of the hearts. Some investigations show that the small 'm' shaped patterns between the figures (picture 5) [4]
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Greek vases preserved their values in foreign markets with the fine technique of making and decorating. The most common vessels were heart shaped jugs with thin handles and two handles, which we call amphoras. Hydria was used to bring water from the fountain. It had three handles, two horizontal, to ensure balance while draining the water. The wide-rimmed and crinkled crater, which resembled an inverted bell, was used to mix wine with water. The Greeks never drank wine without water. Oinokhoe was a wine jug

The earliest examples of these vessels are from the eighth and seventh centuries BC. Humans and animals are highly stylized. Men have a thin waist and a profile that resembles an ‘ax knife’. The trolleys are rectangular in shape with two circles beneath them. Horses are no more than a line game. Human figures are composed of completely painted outer lines. These silhouettes are almost always painted with dark brown on the light brown natural soil color of the container. In some examples, the silhouette is on a black background. This style was soon replaced by a more ornate and natural style, which is clearly evident from the more developed countries of Anatolia and especially the important center of Rhodes. The most beautiful and most 'modern' Athens vases by everyone were also among the most exported goods.
The floor of Attike pots was sometimes painted with gold gilding instead of red. This crater from the 6th century BC is also open. The black figures on the color background create a very nice contrast. This pottery called anço François Vase arak, named after the finder's name, was found in Chiusi, Etruscan region of Italy. This vase is Achilles on the left and Ajax on the right. There are only two vessels signed by the artist Exekias as both potter and painter. This is someone. The artist explained what happened between them.

In the area of the Trojan War, the dice in their hands symbolize their destiny. Achilles says four Ajax says three. (Picture 6)
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RED FIGURED VASES Athens, Greek civilization, was leading the making of pottery. The figures in the Attic pots were shown in red and silhouette, the natural color of the terracotta earth on a black background. (picture 7)
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Pottery with black figures is seen in the period before the spread of the colored floor style. In black-figure style, painting was done on a red background with some colors. In this beautiful example, the name of the potter who made the picture is known as the eki Exekias container.

This drink container is in the form of a kylix, ie a splayed bowl with a single base. There is an ancient Greek boat seized by the wine god Dionysus. There is a vine growing right next to the ship's mast. According to the mythological story, Dionysus escapes from pirates and makes the vine grow from inside the boat to hide from them. He transforms pirates into dolphins. (Picture 8) [5]
File: Vazo8.jpg
BC BC 546, the Persian king Kyros, Sardes and destroyed the kingdom of Lydia by burning down to 300 BC until the beginning of Persian sovereignty has started. The Persians not only conquered Anatolia but also from time to time wars were effective in Thrace and Greece. Therefore, the art of the 5th century BC Hellenic art was under the influence of Persia under the influence of Greco Persian art has passed into the literature.

In the 5th century, art did not only deny temples or official buildings. In this period, the art was not delayed to enter the lower levels other than the high circles, and in the meantime, it was revealed in the vases that claim to be a work of art in terms of shape and decoration. Among them, the “lekitos kapsayan, which contain depictions depicted in white on a white background, appear to have been given to the dead as votive goods. In addition to these works, which are closely related to the cult of the dead, the “red-figure vases Atina of Athens are fully available to both the Mediterranean and the Black Sea markets. These vases have been able to be found in Egypt, Italy, Sicily, France, Spain, the countries surrounding the Black Sea and even Persian palaces. . These are the elegance and diversity of their shapes, and the elegance and harmony of the paintings on them.
(picture 9)

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This is the famous vase where the story of a mortal woman named Niobe is hidden.Niobe has 7 girls and 7 boys and 14 children. He boasted that his own children were more beautiful than Leto's. Artemis and Apollo are killing the children of poor Niobe. The vase painters were initially under the influence of great wall and painting painters such as Polignotos, Ponaios and Mikon, and later Apollodoros, Zevksis, Parhasios and Timantes. they define various subjects, give importance to perspective rules and shadow light games and put their signatures under the paintings which they regard as works of art.5. Towards the middle of the 19th century, a rich and more attractive polychromy was tried to be given to these paintings by joining the cherry red, white and gold gilding techniques to the red figure technique. (image 10) [6]
File: Vazo10.jpg
Black figure technique BC. It was invented around 700 in Corinth. The technique consists of figures with black silhouette made before the vase is fired, the linear details indicated by removing the natural color of the clay by engraving on them and red or white paint added if desired. This is a revolutionary method for vase decoration. Until then, the iron age knew Greece of Geometric style, which consisted only of sharp-angled human and animal silhouettes and rarely included details in contour drawings. This was the best practice in Athens, and not alien to other places. However, the fact that Corinthian artists did not appear as geometric figure painters allowed them to easily develop the new technique under the influence of engraved ivory and metal objects imported from the east. traditions and orientalizing subject repertoire. In the vases dominated by animal friezes throughout the 7th century, they were sometimes developed in the mythological scenes of the laborious miniature style of the proto-Corinthian group. At the same time, the Athenian painters preferred proto-Attic vases, often with large vessels on silhouettes and contour techniques, sometimes with white paint added and rarely with engraved details. However, BC. Around 630 Athenian artists began to use the black figure technique for all the figures in their vases, and in the last years of the century, they applied to the black figure for the filling motifs. The black figure of Athens had now emerged, and for the next 150 years, it would effectively hold the markets in the Greek world. . The dominant decorative style in Corinthian vases was the animal friezes, and with the adoption of the black figure in Athens, this preference of Corinthus was moved to the city. Many of the early black-figure vases in Athens have high-quality large animals depicted with a pattern and perfection close to those found in the Corinthian.

However, during the first two generations of the technique, large vases of small vases or large vases with animal friezes were used. decorate has been increasingly preferred. A few painters go beyond this limitation and create scenes in a beautifully arranged storyteller style. The quality of potting is always high. In this period, perhaps with the influence of Corinthian new forms and other materials used in Peleponesos'ta figurative scenes inspired by the use of other materials are seen. These Athenian painters have never lost their real-life large-scale narrative features have provided better understanding. By the end of this period, the domination of animal friezes came to an end.
Until the middle of the fifth, a considerable amount of black figured vases were produced in Athens. With rare exceptions in the first quarter of the century, black-figure works are of low quality and can meet the need for cheap bowls, jugs and oil flasks. In the days when the pottery industry was booming in Athens, red-figure vases are probably expensive goods for poor citizens. Therefore, there is no demand for large craters, amphoras and hydrias of the old technique to decorate the feast tables of the rich. Nevertheless, the fact that the black figure lasts so long cannot be explained by the conservative tastes of the old buyers. The market for these low-quality goods in Greece and outside Greece has continued to exist strongly. It is possible for conservatism to play a role here. This is because the imports of Attican goods to other Greek cities, Cyprus and the colonies in the north and west have not decreased. Even 50 years after the invention of the red-figure technique, trade is largely dominated by black-figure vases. Only the major markets in Etruria and Campania were interested in the new technique. Even long years of war did not make a noticeable change to the black-figure vases produced in Athens.
Pothniatheron- Artemis Goddess of Animals. [7] (François vase - resim11)
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Aryballos: A small bowl with a round body tapered downward, a flat neck, a large mouth tray attached to it and two handles. (resim12)
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Alabastron: The body, which extends downward and widened, is reminiscent of a drop shape. (resim13)
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Kothon: It is a form which was put forward by Corinthian ceramics. The narrow necked cylinder body container was used as a water bottle. (resim14)
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Crater: It is a medium-sized container with wide rim.Grekler does not drink the wine as pure water, mixed it with water. Crater, Kotyle Crater, Kalyx Crater, Bell Crater, Kalathos Crater. (resim15)
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Pykxis: Containers in the form of a closed box as a form containing different body structures. It has a lid with a handle in the middle. (resim16)
File: Vazo16.jpg - resim16
Prothesis and the funeral pot (resim17)

Proto-Attica Amphora of Heracles and Nessos- 675-650 BC. (resim18)
File: Vazo18.jpg - resim18
An Attic amphora depicting horse-drawn carriages - from Piraeus 620 (picture19)
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The Attic amphora depicting Heracles and Gorgo who killed Nessos. BC 610- 600 (pic20)
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Eretria amphora The first half of the 7th century BC. (resim21)
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An Attic dish depicting Perseus- Gorgon. (resim22)
File: Vazo22.jpg - resim22
^ Ankara University Faculty of Language, History and Geography Greek Language and Literature Prof.Dr. Tansu Acik - Selections from Tragedies Lecture Notes
^ Conti, Flavio, Introduction to Ancient Greek Art Anka offset printing press, 1st edition, 1982
^ Friedell, Egon, Cultural History of Ancient Greece, Dost Publishing House, 3rd Edition , 2011
^ Mansel, Arif, Müfid, Aegean and Greek History, TTK, 10th edition, 2014
^ Maffre, Jean-Jacques, Greek Art, Dost Publications, 2013
^ Boardman, John, Greek Art, Homer Bookstore, 2005
^ Richter, Gisela, Greek Art, Cem publishing house, 12th edition, 1979
^ Martin, Thomas, Ancient Greek, Say publications, 1st Edition, 2012

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